Cappadocia has plenty of underground cities. It’s known that there are more than a hundred of underground cities. Original inhabitants, who used to live in Cappadocia region, carved the caves into the Cappadocia’s soft tufa rocks and dug underground settlements to hide from several invasions. Although it is not certain when exactly these settlements were dug; the findings from the Prehistoric Era Show that those caves were existing thousands of years ago that they existed in the Hittites(2nd BC).There are about 40 underground cities discovered withing approximately 200 big and small scale settlements. Eyewitness Turkey Travel agency offers Cappadocia tours including underground cities.
Derinkuyu Underground City ; located in Derinkuyu district center, can be accepted the most attractive underground complex of Cappadocia. Today only %10 of the city is open to visitors and with its 85 m depth and 8 floors it is really fascinating. It is foreseen that the city has 12 floors and is spread over 4 m underground. The city restorated in 1965 and it is anticipated that almost 20 thousand people have lived in the city. It consists of barn, church, missionary school, kitchen, storages, fermentatory, ovens, draw wells and round shaped latch Stones, etc. It is also determined that the city has 52 ventilation stacks and among them the most attractive one is with 55 m depth and reaches till outside.
Kaymaklı Underground City ; This underground city was open to the public on 1974 and it has 7-8 floors. It is anticipated that it has an underground connection with Derinkuyu Underground City, 10 km far away. The visiting floors are the first four floors. The construction period of the underground city is not known exactly but it is assumed that it might have been built up or improved during the Arap invasions(7-8 th centuries). It is understood that , the underground city is able to host 15-20 thousands of people in itself. It’s one of the best part of a Cappadocia tour.
Acıgöl Underground City ; located in the center of the district and only some parts of the underground were cleaned and opened to public. It has three different entrances. Today you may enter the city from its original entrance by passing through a short corridor. You may see the saloons and the rooms of the city connected to each other with corridors and the passages bonded arched by Stones, latch Stones, ventilation stacks and many others.
Tatlarin underground City ; located in Tatlarin Village, 10 km North of Acigol district. The city is on the hill which is called ‘castle’ by the locals and on 1991 a small part of the city was open to public. Today only two floors of the city can be visited and due to the large barns, kitchen and storages, it is thought that the city was used by a high population. In addition, the toilet rooms which are very rare in underground cities, attract attention in Tatlarin.
Ozkonak Underground City ; It is estimated that this underground city which was discovered in 1972 in Ozkonak town at 14 km North of Avanos, is a four storey city. The size could not been determined exactly because of incomplete cleaning of the site. You can see several rooms, large saloons, slim and narrow ventilation chimneys, water well, a must house and rounded key stones in the sections opened to visits. There are some holes opened at the roof of the corridor in front of key stones in order to use them in case of an attack. This kind of structure is unique that can not be found other underground cities in the region Özlüce Underground City ; located in Özlüce Village, whose ancient name was Zile and 6 km West of Kaymaklı borough. You may reach to the village by following the road of Çakıllı Village either via Kaymaklı or Derinkuyu. Only one floor of the underground city has been renovated but it is spread out a wide area. The keystone is granite and has about 2 meter of diameter. Rock engraved spaces of the city come across after the keystone. There are partitions once used as a storage of supply, and several rooms.
Mazı Underground City ; It is located in Mazı Village which is 18 km south of Urgup. You may reach to the village either by Mustafapaşa route or via Kaymakli. It is situated almost 12 km east of Kaymaklı.
The underground city is on the west slope of the valley where the village is located. It has two floors and it is anticipated that it spread out a wide area. After the entrance of the city there is a barn which has an engraved basin for the animals. Beside this, fermentatory, the church and 20 m depth draw well can be seen.